Personal Fall Protection
elements of any fall protection system are A for anchorage, B for body support
and C for connectors.
Active Fall Protection System
of providing fall protection that requires workers to actively wear and use
fall protection equipment, and which requires training.
point of attachment for lifelines or deceleration devices, e.g. lanyards &
self retracting lifelines.
a connection point onto an anchorage or building structure in order to attach
the rest of the fall arrest system.
imposed upon the worker and the anchorage point the moment the fall arrest
system stops the fall. It is measured in kilo newtons (kN), a maximum of 6kN is
known as the dorsal attachment or dorsal D-ring. Attachment point that is
located on the back of the full-body harness, positioned between the shoulder
the form of a full body harness that provides a connection point on the worker
for the personal fall arrest system. Depending on the application, they can be
used as part of a system to protect the worker from falling and to limit the
extent of potential injury in case of a fall.
Repair Facility (Factory Authorized)
that has been approved by the manufacturer to repair and certify equipment.
fall protection system that assists the user in the ascent or descent of a
fixed ladder to reduce fatigue.
used to join together components of a personal fall arrest system or parts of a
component within the system.
enclosed or partially enclosed space that is at atmospheric pressure during
occupancy and is not intended or designed primarily as a place of work, and (1)
is liable at any time to - a) have an atmosphere which contains potentially harmful
levels of contaminants; b) have an oxygen deficiency or excess; or c) cause
engulfment; and (2) could have restricted means for entry and exit.
that uses weights to provide a sturdy support structure to offset the weight of
is deemed compatible when they have been designed to work together in such a
way that their size and shape do not cause them to separate inadvertently
1891.4 defines a Competent Person as: A person who has, through a combination
of training, education and experience, acquired knowledge and skills enabling
that person to correctly perform a specified task.
Competent Person Classifications
Height Safety Operator - A person who is able to perform harness based
work at heights under the direct supervision of a height safety supervisor
Height Safety Equipment Inspector - A person who is competent in the skills needed
to detect faults in height safety equipment and to determine remedial action.
Height Safety Manager - A person who is competent in the selection,
design, manufacture or installation of height safety systems or equipment, or
the development of control measures or work practices.
attachment point on the rear or front of the harness which allows for the
connection of other components of a fall protection/ positioning system such as
a lifeline or deceleration device.
or Davit Post
are an alternative to the basic tripod. They have a variety of base
configurations to fit a wide variety of openings and holes.
system that is designed to contain debris. These systems are usually not rated
for fall arrest.
device which utilises an energy absorption component to minimise the impact of
the force created during a fall on the body, such as a lanyard or self
The additional vertical distance a falling worker travels, excluding
lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at
which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured as the distance
between the location of an workers body harness attachment
point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the
deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point
after the worker comes to a full stop.
typically used for on-site fall protection training and demonstrations to
conduct drop tests and showcase the proper use of fall protection equipment
used to help safely lower a worker to a lower level of a structure or to the
ground in a controlled manner.
known as the back D-ring. Attachment point that is located on the back of the
full-body harness, positioned between the shoulder blades.
that connects to the rear D-ring of your harness that enables easier
connections to lanyards and other devices by extending the reach from the rear
Double or Triple Action Device
self-closing hook or karabiner with a keeper latch which will automatically
close and remain closed until manually operated. These units have a minimum of
two (double) or three (triple) distinct and deliberate consecutive actions to
manually open them.
Fall Arrest Systems
that protect the worker after a fall from hitting the ground and/or
obstructions below the work platform. Passive
systems require little or no personal involvement from the worker. Active systems require the worker to
actively use the system in order for it to be effective. It is not always
practical, cost effective or possible to employ passive systems. In these
cases, a Personal Fall Arrest System is required.
vertical distance needed to safely arrest a fall. When using a self-retracting
lifeline, a minimum of 1.4m of clearance from the working level to the lower
level is recommended. When using a lanyard, the required distance from the
anchorage to the nearest obstruction equals lanyard length plus, deceleration
distance, height of the worker and a recommended safety factor of 1m.
determine the required fall clearance add the appropriate factors together,
this will give you the safe required distance (RD) below the working surface
for work which is to be carried out where there is any risk of falling.
Calculation: free fall distance energy absorber deceleration distance clearance
to obstruction during fall arrest
location where a worker is exposed to a potential fall.
A visual indicator that shows the fall arrest system
or device has been used to arrest a fall.
the systems and techniques that eliminate the possibility of a fall to a lower
level. The most desirable method of fall prevention is to engineer out or
modify the work plan to eliminate the hazard.
the overall industry and process of protecting workers at height.
Fall Protection Equipment
that is used by a worker to prevent or arrest a fall.
Fall Restraint System
that prevents a worker from reaching a fall hazard.
used to install and remove a fall protection device to an overhead location
using a telescoping pole and adaptor tool.
in technical terms in Newtons (N). The weight of something in Newtons (N) is
calculated by multiplying its mass in Kilograms (kg) by the value of Gravity,
which is 9.81 (m/s2). A Kilogram (kg) is a unit of mass (i.e. the weight of a
Mass x Acceleration.
calculation purposes: 1000N = 1kN, 1kN = 100kg, 10kN = 1000kg.
of falling before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest
Free Fall Distance
vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the worker body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system
begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration
distance, and lifeline/lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device
slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before they
operate and fall arrest forces occur.
connector located on the front of a full-body harness in the sternum area.
form of fall prevention. Usually a barrier consisting of vertical and
horizontal rails to prevent workers from reaching a fall hazard.
component such as a D-ring, snap hook or karabiner used to attach components of
a fall protection system.
Harness (Full Body Harness)
assembly that is worn by the user to distribute the arresting forces throughout
the body in the event of a fall. The harness is equipped with attachment points
to connect it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.
Hierarchy of Control
hierarchy of control is a sequence of options which allow you to control a
hazard from the highest level of control to the least preferred option. These
measures, in order, are: identification, elimination, substitution and isolation.
If these are not practical, fall protection equipment must be used.
Horizontal Lifeline (HLL)/Rail
flexible line supported by two or more anchorages, to which workers can connect
a lanyard or SRL and travel safely along the line length. HLL’s can be designed
for total restraint or fall arrest.
Life Line – Permanent
permanently installed horizontal lifeline that is built into the structure for
use as the anchorage not only during construction, but also for maintenance and
repairs later on.
Life Line – Temporary
pre-engineered horizontal lifeline system that is easy to install/remove and
can be used on more than one jobsite without damaging the surface that it is
inertia-activated reel that retracts and releases. In the event of a fall the
connection points that support the HLL at mid points and divide the overall
length of the HLL into smaller spans.
connector with a self-closing gate that can be manually locked or that
automatically locks, and is used to attach to a fall protection component. Can
be double action or triple action.
A line of
rope, webbing or cable incorporating a shock absorber and connectors at each
end to connect the harness to the anchor device.
Latch Protection Device
that attaches to the eye of a snap hook that reduces the risks that can become
present in various work methods/techniques that causes the webbing or shock
absorber to wrap around the back of the locking gate of the hook and
unintentionally ‘trip’ the gate.
of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or other walking/working surface
(such as the deck) which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking,
or formwork sections are placed, formed, or constructed. A leading edge is
considered to be an "unprotected side and edge" during periods when
it is not actively and continuously under construction.
(VLLs, HLLs or SRLs/SRDs)
consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang
vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to
stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for
connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.
safety device to completely stop a dropping load (material loads only, not
personnel) if it breaks free from the main support line. It is typically used
in conjunction with lifting equipment such as cranes and hoists.
areas or surfaces to which a worker can fall. Such areas or surfaces
include, but are not limited to, ground levels, floors, platforms, ramps,
runways, excavations, pits, tanks, material, water, equipment, structures, or
Manual Descent Control Device
friction device that, once engaged, requires the user to control lowering
systems, usually designed to contain debris or for fall arrest.
Pass Through Buckle
composed of two mating flat metal frames. The female frame is an open rectangle
that is permanently attached to a loop at the end of a strap. The male frame is
attached to the joining strap by passing the webbing through the two slots in
the frame. To engage the buckle, turn the male buckle at an angle so that it
will pass through the female frame. After it has passed through, turn it back
so that the male frame lies directly on top of the female frame.
Permit-Required Confined Space
space that has one or more of the following characteristics: (1) contains or
has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere; (2) contains a material that
has the potential for engulfing an entrant; (3) has an internal configuration
such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging
walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller
cross-section; or (4) contains any other recognized serious safety or health
hazard (such as a fall hazard).
Personal Fall Arrest Systems
combination of components that when used together will arrest a person in a fall
from a working level. A PFAS typically consist of: an anchorage, full body
harness, connectors and a deceleration device such as a lanyard or SRL.
system that is designed to withstand fall arrest forces.
A work positioning
strap designed to be placed around a pole/structure and attached at two points,
one on each side of a line worker’s fall arrest harness while the wearer is
working on the pole.
body harness system rigged to allow a worker to be supported on an elevated
vertical surface, such as a wall, and work with both hands free while leaning.
that allows for one-handed operation for fast and easy donning of a full-body
The ability to retrieve or rescue an individual from
confined spaces or heights. Rescue must always be a component of any fall
Positioning Device (RPD)
or positioning system that allows the worker to simply raise or lower himself
or someone else to a work level.
and components used to help a fallen worker return to the ground or location
from which he or she fell, or that retrieves or evacuates an worker from
dangerous situations or confined spaces.
on a person’s movement by connection to an anchorage to physically prevent the
person from reaching a position at which there is a risk of a free or limited
evaluation of hazards within the worksite which have the potential to cause
frequent serious injury or illness to occur.
identification technology is incorporated into a product through RFID Tags for
identification and tracking purposes using radios waves.
deceleration device which travels on a lifeline and automatically, by friction,
engages the lifeline and locks so as to arrest the fall of a worker. A rope
grab usually employs the principle of inertial locking, cam/level locking, or
Shock Absorber/Energy Absorber
device that is designed to tear or extend, to reduce the forces on the worker
in the event of a fall to less than 6kN.
connector with a hook shaped body that has an opening for attachment to a fall
protection component and a self closing gate to retain the component within the
opening. Hooks must be double-acting to be compliant.
distance between intermediates or anchor points for a horizontal lifeline
incorporated into a full body harness which passes under the buttocks
connecting the two leg loops. It is designed to distribute the forces from the
inside of the legs to the outside to lessen the effect of injury following a
known as Orthostatic Intolerance, Suspension Trauma). A term used to describe
the potential after-effects of immobile suspension within a full body safety
harness following a fall from height. It presents with the development of a
range of symptoms which may result in unconsciousness or death, and is thought
to occur as a result of low blood pressure secondary to blood pooling in the
legs, pelvis and abdomen of victims who are suspended and motionless.
Suspension Trauma Straps
that can be attached to or is integral on a full-body harness that is deployed
following fall arrest and used to minimize the impact of suspension trauma.
pendulum-like motion resulting from a fall that occurs in a position located
horizontally away from the anchorage.
both the connecting means and an anchorage connector and comes in two styles.
One incorporates an adjustable D-ring on the lanyard for attaching the snap
hook and the other is designed for the hook to go around the webbing itself,
which requires a specialty hook with a gate strength capacity of 5,000 pounds
anchorage connectors for a fall arrest system made of different materials,
including cable, web and chain.
portable devices usually used for manhole entry and retrieval applications.
anchorage connector that rolls along the I-beam to provide horizontal mobility
to the worker.
known as double-leg lanyard. Two lanyards that are connected at one end. Used
to provide 100 precent tie-off to keep the worker protected in the event of a
fall at all times as he or she moves from one location to another.
on a person’s movement by means of connection to an anchorage using non‑adjustable equipment in such a way that it will physically prevent the
person from reaching any position at which there is risk of a fall, either over
an edge, through a surface or due to a failed moveable platform.
Type 1 Fall Arrest Device
rope & rail grabs - A fall arrest device that travels along an anchorage
line and, when loaded, locks to the line. The user is connected to the
activating lever, which locks the device in the event of a fall. A typical use
of a Type 1 device is as a ladder fall‑arrest
system, using a rigid rail or flexible line attached to the ladder.
Type 2 & 3 Fall Arrest Device
- Self Retracting Lifeline (SRL)
deceleration device containing a drum‑wound
line which may be extracted and retracted under slight tension when the user
moves vertically away from and towards the device. In the event of a fall, the
device will quickly lock the drum and prevent the lifeline from paying out,
thus arresting the user’s fall and limiting the force to 6kN. When
incorporating a retrieval winch, it becomes a type 3 fall arrest device.
Unprotected Sides and Edges
Any side or edge (except at entrances to points of access) of a walking/working surface, e.g., floor, roof, ramp, or runway where there is no wall or guardrail system a minimum of 0.9 metres high above the walkway/working surface.
Vertical Lifeline System
flexible line rigged from one or more anchors to which a worker can secure the
components of their fall protection system in a vertical orientation. These
systems provide freedom of movement whilst maintaining user protection from a
fall from height.
surface, whether horizontal or vertical on which a worker walks or works,
including, but not limited to, floors, roofs, ramps, bridges, runways, formwork
and concrete reinforcing steel but not including ladders, vehicles, or
trailers, on which workers must be located in order to perform their job
fabric used on fall protection equipment components such as full-body harnesses
adjusted termination for wire rope cable, requires no tools to install and is
that lifts and lowers loads and contains a mechanism that controls pay-out and
take-up of the line. Provides a mechanical lifting advantage.
of a walking/working surface where job duties are being performed.
fall protection components in a way that allows a worker to be supported in a
harness under tension, so that a fall is prevented, e.g. the use of a pole
strap or lanyard.