>  Key Standards

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There are many local, state, provincial and government regulations and standards that apply to fall protection, rescue and confined space entry. Personnel must understand these regulations and standards when selecting and using the appropriate fall protection gear. See below for a summary of some of the important OSHA standards, ANSI standards​ and CSA standards related to fall protection equipment.

OSHA Standards for General Industry ​(excerpts below)

- Subpart D, Walking/Working Surfaces  
      - 1910.27 (d) (5) Fixed Ladder, Ladder Safety Devices
      - 1910.28 (j) (4) Safety Requirements for Scaffolding, Boatswain's Chair
Proposed Subpart I, Personal Fall Arrest Systems
1910.66 Subpart F, Powered Platforms and Building Maintenance
1910.146 Subpart J, Permit - Required Confined Space
Subpart R, Special Industries  
      - 1910.268 Telecommunications
      - 1910.269Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution

OSHA Standards for Construction (excerpts below)

- Subpart E, Personal Protective Equipment  
      - 1926.104 Safety Belts, Lifelines and Lanyards
      - 1926.105 Safety Nets
- Subpart L, Scaffolding  
      - 1926.451 (g) (1) Boatswain's Chair
- Subpart M, Fall Protections  ​
      - 1926.500 Scope, Application and Definitions
      - 1926.501 Duty to Have Fall Protection
      - 1926.502 Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices
      - 1926.503 Training Requirements
- Subpart R, Steel Erection  
      - 1926.760​​ Fall Protection


OSHA Standards for Marine Terminals and Longshoring

- 1917 Marine Terminals
- 1918 Longshoring

ANSI Standards (excerpts below)

- A10.14-1991​ Construction and Demolition Operations: Requirements for Belts, Harnesses, Lanyards and Lifelines
- A14.3-1992 Ladders - Fixed - Safety Requirements
- Z117.1-1989 Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces
- Z359.1-1992 Safety Requirements for Personal Fall Arrest Systems, Subsystems and Components

CSA Standards (excerpts below)

- Z259.10-12 Full Body Harnesses
- Z259.11-05 Energy Absorbers and Lanyards
- Z259.1-05 Body Belts and Saddles
- Z259.12-11 Connecting Components
- Z259.14-12 Fall Restrict for Wood Pole
- Z259.2.5-12 Fall Arresters and Vertical Lifelines
- Z259.2.2-98 Self Retracting Lifelines
- Z259.2.3-12 Descent Control Devices

OSHA Standard Excerpts

Safety Standards for Fall Protection in the Construction Industry
(OSHA 1926.501 – Duty to have fall protection)
(a) General. (1) This section sets forth requirements for employers to provide fall protection systems. All fall protection required by this section shall conform to the criteria set forth in 1926.502 of the subpart.
​(b) (1) Unprotected sides and edges. Each employee on a walking/working surface (horizontal and vertical surface) with an unprotected side or edge which is 6 feet (1.8m) or more above a lower level shall be protected from falling by the use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.
Editors Note: The requirements stated in (b)(1) are similar for: leading edges, hoist area, holes, formwork and reinforcing steel, ramps, runways and other walkways, excavations, dangerous equipment, overhead bricklaying and related work, roofing work on low-slope roofs, steep roofs, precast concrete erection, residential construction and wall openings.

Fall protection system criteria and practices
(OSHA 1926.502)
(a) General. (1) Fall protection systems required by this part shall comply with the applicable provisions of this section.
(2) Employers shall provide and install all protection systems required by this support for an employee, and shall comply with all other pertinent requirements of this subpart before that employee begins the work that necessitates the fall protection.
(c) Personal fall arrest systems. Personal fall arrest systems and their use shall comply with the provisions set forth below. Effective January 1, 1998, body belts are not acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest system. Note: The use of a body belt in a positioning device system is acceptable and is regulated under paragraph (e) of this section.
(5) Snaphooks shall be sized to be compatible with the member to which they are connected to prevent unintentional disengagement of the snaphook by depression of the snaphook keeper by the connected member, or shall be a locking type snaphook designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snaphook by the contact of the snaphook keeper by the connected member. Effective January 1, 1998, only locking type snaphooks shall be used.
(15) Anchorages used for attachment of personal fall arrest equipment shall be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms and capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) per employee attached, or shall be designed, installed, and used as follows:
(i) as part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two; and
(ii) (ii) under the supervision of a qualified person.
(16) Personal fall arrest systems, when stopping a fall, shall:
(i) limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 900 pounds (4 kN) when used with a body belt;
(ii) limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds (8 kN) when used with a body harness;
(iii) be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.8m), nor contact any lower level;
(iv) bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet (1.07m),; and,
(v) have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet (1.8m), or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less.
(d) Positioning device system. Positioning device systems and their use shall conform to the following provisions:
(1) Positioning devices shall be rigged such that an employee cannot free fall more than 2 feet (.9m)
(2) Positioning devices shall be secured to an anchorage capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load of an employee’s fall or 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN), whichever is greater.

Training requirements
(OSHA 1926.503)
(a) Training Program.
​(1) The employer shall provide a training program for each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards. The program shall enable each employee to recognize the hazards of falling and shall train each employee in the procedures to be followed in order to minimize these hazards.

Fixed Ladders
(OSHA 1910.27)
(d.5) Ladder safety devices may be used on tower, water tank and chimney ladders over 20 feet in unbroken length in place of cage protection. No landing platform is required. All ladder safety devices, such as those that incorporate life belts, friction brakes, and sliding attachments, must meets the design requirements of the ladders they serve.

Powered Platforms For Building Maintenance
(OSHA 1910.66)
(i) Personal Fall Protection. Employers must provide personal fall arrest systems meeting the requirements outlined. Requirements include the following:
Anchorages to which personal fall arrest equipment is attached shall be capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds (22.2kN) per employee attached, or shall be designed, installed and used as part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two, under the supervision of a qualified person.
Personal fall arrest systems shall, when stopping a fall: 1) limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 900 pounds (4kN) when used with a body belt; and 2) limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds (8kN) when used with a body harness.
Personal fall arrest systems shall be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.8m), nor contact any lower level.
Personal fall arrest systems or components subject to impact loading shall be immediately removed from service and shall not be used again for employee protection unless inspected and determined by a competent person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.
Before using a personal fall arrest system, and after any component or system is changed, employees shall be trained in accordance with the requirements of paragraph 1910.66 (i)(1), in the safe use of the system.
Personal fall arrest systems shall be inspected prior to each use for mildew, wear, damage and other deterioration. Defective components shall be removed from service if their strength or function may be adversely affected.

Permit-Required Confined Spaces
(OSHA 1910.146)
(a) Scope and application. This section contains requirements for practices and procedures to protect employees in general industry from the hazards of entry into permit-required confined spaces.
(k)(3) To facilitate non-entry rescue, retrieval systems or methods shall be used whenever an authorized entrant enters a permit space, unless the retrieval equipment would increase the overall risk of entry or would not contribute to the rescue of the entrant. Retrieval systems shall meet the following requirements: (i) Each authorized entrant shall use a chest or full body harness, with a retrieval line attached at the center of the entrant's back near shoulder level, above the entrant's head or at another point which the employer can establish presents a profile small enough for the successful removal of the entrant. Wristlets may be used in lieu of the chest or full body harness if the employer can demonstrate that the use of a chest or full body harness is infeasible or creates a greater hazard and that the use of wristlets is the safest and most effective alternative. (ii) The other end of the retrieval line shall be attached to a mechanical device or fixed point outside of the permit space in such a manner that rescue can begin as soon as the rescuer becomes aware that rescue is necessary. A mechanical device shall be available to retrieve personnel from vertical type permit spaces more that 5 feet deep.

ANSI Standard Excerpts
Safety Requirements for Personal Fall Arrest Systems, Subsystems and Components
(ANSI Z359.1-1992) 
1.1 Scope- This standard establishes requirements for the performance, design, marking, qualification, instruction, training, inspection, use, maintenance and removal from service of connectors, full body harnesses, lanyards, energy absorbers, anchorage connectors, fall arresters, vertical lifelines, and self retracting lanyards comprising personal fall arrest systems for users within the capacity range of 130 to 310 lbs. (59 to 140 kg.).
1.2.1 This standard addresses only personal fall arrest systems (PFAS) incorporating full body harnesses. Whenever the term “system” is used in the standard if refers to a personal fall arrest system.
3.1.2 When subjected to tests contained in 4.2, a personal fall arrest system in which a full body harness is used shall produce a maximum arrest force (MAF) of not more than 1,800 pounds (8.0kN) and shall bring the fall to a complete stop with a deceleration distance of not more than 42 inches (1,067 mm). In suspension, after the fall is arrested, the angle at rest which the vertical center line of the test torso makes with the vertical shall not exceed 30 degrees.
3.2.1.4 Snaphooks and carabiners shall be self closing and self locking and shall be capable of being opened only by at least two consecutive deliberate actions.
3.2.2.4 The harness shall provide support for the body across the lower chest, over the shoulders and around the thighs when a tensile load is applied to the fall arrest attachment elements. The harness, when properly fitted and used, shall prevent fall-out. The fall arrest attachment shall be located at the back (dorsal) position.
3.2.4.7 When energy absorbers are dynamically tested in accordance with 4.3.5.2, the maximum arrest force shall not exceed 900 lbs. (4 kN).
3.2.8.7 Static Strength- When tested in accordance with 4.3.7.3, the SRL shall withstand a tensile load of 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN) statically applied directly to the point of SRL line connection to the SRL drum.
3.2.8.9. Dynamic Performance- When tested in accordance with 4.3.7.1, the SRL shall lock and remain locked until released. The arrest distance shall not exceed 54 inches (1,372 mm). Maximum arrest force shall not exceed 1,800 pounds (8kN).
5.1.2 The legibility and attachment of required markings shall endure for the life of the component, subsystem, or system being marked.
​5.3.1 Instructions shall be provided to the user, printed in English, and affixed to the equipment at the time of shipment from the manufacturer.

Requirements for Safety Belts, Harnesses, Lanyards and Lifelines for Construction and Demolition Use.
(ANSI A10.14-1991)
1.1 Scope- This standard establishes performance criteria for the manufacture and use of body belts, harnesses, lanyards, lifelines, rope grabs and shock absorbers for construction and demolition.
4.3.3.8 Anchorages for vertical lifelines shall have anchorage strength of at least 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN)
6.1.1.1 Personal fall arrest systems shall be rigged so that an employee can neither free fall more than five feet (1.5m) nor contact any lower level.

Ladder Safety Devices
(ANSI A14.3-1992)
7.1.3 The ladder safety device shall be designed to absorb the impact of a solid object weighing at least 500 pounds in a free fall of 18 inches.
7.1.4 Design and installation of mountings shall not reduce the design safety factors of the fixed ladders.
7.3.1 The safety sleeve shall be of a type which can be operated entirely by the person using the ladder safety device. It shall permit the person using the ladder safety device to ascend or descend without having to continually manipulate the safety sleeve.
7.3.3 The maximum length of the connection between the centerline of the carrier and the point of attachment to the body belt shall not exceed 9 inches.

CSA Standard Excerpts

Fall restrict equipment for wood pole climbing
(CSA Z259.14-12)
1 Scope
1.1 - This Standard specifies design, testing, and marking requirements for fall restrict equipment for wood pole climbing. This equipment is for use by a single worker exposed to the hazard of falling when ascending or descending, moving around, and working on or from a wood pole.
4 Classifications
Fall restrict equipment (FRE) shall be classified into two types, as follows:
(a) Type A equipment is mandated and for use on dry, wet, and conduit-covered poles as described in this Standard.
(b) Type AB equipment is optional and for use on dry, wet, conduit-covered, and icy poles as described in this Standard.
6.2 Down-the-pole tests
6.2.1 General - Two separate down-the-pole tests shall be required, i.e., down-the-pole with torso above FRE and down-the-pole with torso below FRE.
6.2.2 Down-the-pole with torso above FRE test - This test is intended to represent a worker, using FRE, ascending or descending the pole and having a spur kick-out or becoming immobile. When tested in accordance with Clause 7.3.1.1, the device shall arrest the fall. The maximum permissible slippage of the device along the test pole shall be as follows:
(a) 100 cm (39 in) for “Dry pole, no conduit”;
(b) 125 cm (49 in) for “Wet pole, no conduit”;
(c) 125 cm (49 in) for “Wet pole with conduit”; and
(d) 150 cm (59 in) for “Icy pole”.
6.2.3 Down-the-pole with torso below FRE test - This test is intended to represent a worker, using FRE, ascending or descending the pole and having a spur kick-out or becoming immobile. When tested in accordance with Clause 7.3.1.2, the device shall arrest the fall. The maximum permissible slippage of the device along the test pole shall be as follows:
(a) 100 cm (39 in) for “Dry pole, no conduit”;
(b) 125 cm (49 in) for “Wet pole, no conduit”; and;
(c) 125 cm (49 in) for “Wet pole with conduit”.
6.3 Off-the-pole test - This test is intended to represent a worker, using FRE, ascending or descending the pole and having a spur kick-out, causing him or her to fall towards one side. When tested in accordance with Clause 7.3.2, the device shall arrest the fall. The maximum permissible slippage of the device along the test pole shall be100 cm (39 in).

Connecting components for personal fall arrest systems (PFAS)
(CSA Z259.12-11)
1 Scope
1.1 - This Standard specifies design and performance requirements, test methods, and requirements for marking and labelling individual connecting components used as part of a personal fall arrest system (PFAS). This Standard applies to components that are
(a) used in the interconnection of a complete PFAS unit in accordance with CSA Z259.10;
(b) intended to be used as the primary single link to a permanent anchorage connector; or
(c) intended to be used as a primary attachment point between two or more subsystems.
1.2 - This Standard does not apply to anchorages or anchorage connectors.
4 Classification of connecting components
4.1 Class I connectors
4.1.1 - Class I connectors comprising hardware connectors used for fall arrest may
(a) be integral to an approved subsystem; or
(b) be provided separately to
   ( i ) connect subsystems together; vertical surface) with an unprotected side or edge which is 6 feet (1.8m) or more above a lower level shall be protected from falling by the use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.
   (ii ) connect a PFAS to an anchorage connector or anchorage; or
   (iii) perform both functions described in Items (i) and (ii).
A Class I soft loop connector shall be integrally connected to a PFAS component.
4.1.2 - Class I connectors shall meet the requirements of Clauses 5 and 6.
4.2 Class II connectors
4.2.1 - Class II connectors comprise all connecting components that are
(a) provided as approved components to integrate two or more parts of a PFAS; or
(b) incorporated into a PFAS subsystem at the time of its manufacture.
A Class II connector shall be used as an integral part of a complete subsystem.
4.2.2 - Class II connectors may be hardware connectors or may be made by other means of manufacture, e.g., stitching, rope splicing, swaging, or heat fusion (see Figures 6 and 7).
5 Class I connecting components — General requirements
5.1 Tensile breaking strength
All Class I components shall exhibit an ultimate breaking strength of not less than 22.5 kN (5000 lb-f)
when subjected to the static strength tests outlined in Clause 6.3 (see Figures 8 and 9).
7 Class II connecting components
7.1 General
7.1.1 Minimum breaking strength
All Class II connecting components shall have a minimum breaking strength of 15 kN (3372 lb-f).
8 Marking
8.1.1 - All Class I components shall be marked indelibly with the following information:
(a) load rating (major axis);
(b) traceability of material, according to manufacturer’s standard;
(c) year of manufacture;
(d) identity of manufacturer;
(e) the Standard designation (CSA Z259.12); and
( f ) the load rating for the gate, to be stamped or otherwise permanently marked on the gate mechanism.
8.1.2 - In addition to having the markings specified in Clause 8.1.1, Class I soft loops shall be marked to indicate that they
(a) can be used with carabiners that have 16 kN (3600 lb-f) gates;
(b) can be used with soft loops on lanyards; and
(c) are not be used with snap hooks.
8.2 - Class II components, since they are integral parts of a PFAS, shall not be required to be marked as such.

Energy absorbers and lanyards
(CSA Z259.11-05)
1 Scope
1.1 General - This Standard specifies requirements for the performance, design, testing, marking, and instructions of energy absorbers and lanyards, including lineman’s pole straps and integrally connected lanyards and energy absorbers.
1.2 Applications - Energy absorbers and lanyards are used as parts of complete fall arrest, travel restraint, fall restrict, or work positioning systems, as applicable. The scope of this Standard does not include information regarding the proper selection of components in order to assure the intended performance of these systems.
4.5 Energy absorber design requirements
4.5.1 Energy absorber classifications - 
Energy absorbers shall be classified according to their ability to absorb the kinetic energy from a fall, as follows:
(a) Class E4: Standard 4.0 kN energy absorber or energy absorbing lanyard intended for general use in fall arrest systems:
   (i) maximum arrest forces: 4.0 kN (900 lbf) ambient dry, 5.0 kN (1100 lbf) ambient wet, 5.0 kN (1100 lbf) cold dry, 6.0 kN (1300 lbf) frozen, and 6.0 kN (1300 lbf) hot dry;
  (ii) test parameters: 1.8 m (5.9 ft) drop, 100 kg (220 lb) test mass, and 1.2 m (3.9 ft) elongation; and
 (iii) total mass of worker: at least 45 kg (100 lb), but not more than 115 kg (254 lb); and
(b) Class E6: Heavyweight 6.0 kN energy absorber or energy absorbing lanyard intended for use in fall arrest systems where the user is heavier:
   (i) maximum arrest forces: 6.0 kN (1300 lbf) ambient dry, 7.0 kN (1600 lbf) ambient wet, 7.0 kN (1600 lbf) cold dry, 8.0 kN (1800 lbf) frozen, and 8.0 kN (1800 lbf) hot dry;
  (ii) test parameters: 1.8 m (5.9 ft) drop, 160 kg (350 lb) test mass, and 1.75 m (5.7 ft) elongation;and​
 (iii) total mass of worker: at least 90 kg (200 lb), but not more than 175 kg (386 lb).
Notes:
(1) See Clause 6.1.4 for the conditioning requirements that correspond to the terms wet, dry, cold, frozen, and hot.
(2) Total mass of worker includes the masses of clothing, personal protective equipment, and tools.
(3) The worker mass ranges for Class E4 and E6 energy absorbers overlap in order to simplify equipment selection.
4.6 Lanyard design requirements
4.6.1 Lanyard classifications - Lanyards shall be classified as follows:
(a) Class A: Rope lanyard;
(b) Class B: Web lanyard;
(c) Class C: Wire rope lanyard;
(d) Class D: Positioning lanyard. Lineman’s pole straps shall be included in this classification;
(e) Class E: Chain positioning lanyard; and
(f) Class F: Adjustable positioning lanyard.
A lanyard can have more than one classification..
5.2.4 Dynamic drop tests
5.2.4.1 Ambient dry drop test - When tested in accordance with Clause 6.1.2, a Class E4 energy absorber  hall limit the maximum arrest force to 4.0 kN (900 lbf), and a Class E6 energy absorber shall limit the maximum arrest force to 6.0 kN (1300 lbf).
During this test, permanent elongation of the energy absorber shall not exceed 1.2 m (3.9 ft) for Class E4 and 1.75 m (5.7 ft) for Class E6.
The average arrest force (Favg) shall not be less than the manufacturer’s published value required by
Clause 7.2(b).
5.2.5 Final static resistance test - When tested in accordance with Clause 6.1.3.2, an energy absorber shall be capable of supporting a load of 16.0 kN (3600 lbf) for a period of 5 min.
When tested in accordance with Clause 6.1.3.2, an energy absorber or integral energy absorber shall support the test load without failure and shall not show a maximum elongation, xmax, greater than the manufacturer’s published value required by Clause 7.

Full body harnesses
(Z259.10-12)
1 Scope
1.1 General - This Standard specifies design, testing, marking, and information requirements for use of full body harnesses. Full body harnesses are intended for use as body supports in personal fall arrest systems and in other work situations that involve the risk of falling.
4.7 Classification
A full body harness can have more than one classification; however, all full body harnesses shall meet the requirements of Class A.
Full body harnesses shall be classified as follows:
(a) Class A: fall arrest;
(b) Class D: suspension and controlled descent;
(c) Class E: limited access;
(d) Class L: ladder climbing; and
(e) Class P: work positioning.
4.8 Class A — Fall arrest
Class A full body harnesses are designed to support the body during and after the arrest of a fall. Class A full body harnesses shall
  (a) have one dorsal Class I connector affixed to both shoulder straps; or
  (b) be integrally attached to other certified subsystems or elements with a dorsal Class I or II connector affixed directly to both shoulder straps. Where Class II connectors are used in this integral attachment, the connection shall be designed such that if the subsystem or element is removed from the full body harness, there shall be no means remaining on the full body harness for the attachment of a Class I connector.
Class A full body harnesses should be provided with a sub-pelvic strap and the dorsal connector should be a sliding D-ring. Where such a connector is provided, there shall be a means of limiting the downward creep of the sliding D-ring towards the waist of the user. Figure 1 illustrates the application of a Class A full body harness in pictogram form. This image is displayed on the full body harness (see Clause 7.1(d)).
4.9 Class D — Suspension and controlled descent
Class D full body harnesses are designed for suspension or controlled descent from a height.
In addition to the connector required for Class A, all Class D full body harnesses shall have
  (a) one or two frontal Class I connectors;
  (b) two side-mounted Class I connectors that originate below waist level; or
  (c) one sternal Class I connector.
Figure 2 illustrates an application of a Class D full body harness in pictogram form. This image is displayed on the full body harness (see Clause 7.1(d)).
4.10 Class E — Limited access
Class E full body harnesses are designed to support a worker in a position that reduces the worker’s profile during passage through a limited access area. Hoisting of the worker is usually involved.
In addition to the connector required for Class A, all Class E full body harnesses shall have two Class I connectors. A connector as required for Class E shall be located on each shoulder strap, with a provision
for the connector to slide on the shoulder strap.
Figure 3 illustrates the application of a Class E full body harness in pictogram form. This image is displayed on the full body harness (see Clause 7.1(d)).
4.11 Class L — Ladder climbing
Class L full body harnesses are designed for use with fall restrict systems involving the use of a Class AS or FRL fall arrester that travels on a vertical lifeline or rail, as described in CAN/CSA-Z259.2.1. These systems are typically mounted on or adjacent to ladders or towers.
In addition to the connector required for Class A, all Class L full body harnesses shall have
  (a) one Class I connector attached to the waist belt; or
  (b) one or two Class I connectors attached to the shoulder straps or to the chest strap in the sternal or frontal location. When attachment of the connector(s) is to the chest strap, the chest strap shall be attached to the harness in a fixed, non-sliding position.
Figure 4 illustrates an application of a Class L full body harness in pictogram form. This image is displayed on the full body harness (see Clause 7.1(d)).
4.12 Class P — Work positioning
Class P full body harnesses are designed to position the worker during a work operation.
In addition to the connector required for Class A, all Class P full body harnesses shall have two Class I connectors mounted at waist level.
Figure 5 illustrates an application of a Class P full body harness in pictogram form. This image is displayed on the full body harness (see Clause 7.1(d)).
5 Test samples and performance requirements
5.1 Test samples
The following samples shall be tested:
(a) Two drop tests to Class A requirements (one feet-first drop and one head-first drop) shall be conducted using a new full body harness for each test.
(b) One drop test to each of the applicable Class D, E, L, and P requirements shall be conducted using a new full body harness for each test.
(c) One fall arrest indicator static test shall be conducted using a new full body harness.
5.2 Drop test
5.2.1 Class A feet first
The drop test shall be considered successful if
(a) the fall of the test mass is arrested in the applicable drop test of Clause 6.2;
(b) the test mass remains suspended after the drop for a minimum of 10 min;
(c) all connectors remain connected;
(d) the angle of the test mass at rest after the drop test is not more than 30° when measured in accordance with Clause 6.2.3;
(e) the fall arrest indicator has activated to give a permanent, readily visible warning; and
(f) the harness stretch, “xh”, calculated in accordance with Clause 6.2.4, is less than or equal to the value stated in the manufacturer’s instructions in accordance with Clause 7.2(d).
5.2.2 Class A head first
The drop test shall be considered successful if
(a) the fall of the test mass is arrested in the applicable drop test of Clause 6.2;
(b) the test mass remains suspended after the drop for a minimum of 10 min;
(c) all connectors remain connected; and
(d) the fall arrest indicator has activated to give a permanent, readily visible warning.
5.2.3 Classes D, E, L, and P
The drop test shall be considered successful if
(a) the fall of the test mass is arrested in the applicable drop test of Clause 6.2;
(b) the test mass remains suspended after the drop for a minimum of 10 min; and
(c) all connectors remain connected.
5.3 Fall arrest indicator test
The fall arrest indicator test shall be considered successful if the fall arrest indicator has activated to give a permanent, readily visible warning after being tested in accordance with Clause 6.2.5 or 6.2.6 (as specified by the manufacturer).

Fall Arresters and Vertical Lifelines
(CSA Z259.2.5-12)
1 Scope
1.1 - This Standard specifies design, testing, and marking requirements for manufactured fall arresters for single users and for manufactured vertical lifelines that are used on a vertical or slope plane.
4.3 Fall arresters
4.3.1 - Fall arresters shall be designed and marked in a way that ensures that they are used with a lifeline in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
4.4 Connecting means
4.4.1
4.4.1.1 - Synthetic rope fall arresters shall have a connector (integral or separate) not longer than 750 mm (30 in) for connection to a dorsal attachment.
4.4.1.2 - Wire rope fall arresters shall have a connector (integral or separate) not longer than 225 mm (9 in) for connection to a sternal attachment.
4.5 Vertical lifelines
Lifelines for vertical or sloped plane applications shall meet the following requirements:
(a) they shall be made of virgin synthetic fibres whose characteristics are consistent with those of polyamide or polyester fibres and have a breaking strength of not less than 27 kN (6000 lb-f). The lifeline shall be tested in accordance with ISO 2307 or CI 1500. Polypropylene line shall not be used. A copolymer incorporating polypropylene may be used;
(b) if made of metal wire, they shall have a tensile strength of not less than 27 kN (6000 lb-f) when tested in accordance with ASTM E8/E8M;
(c) they shall have an elastic elongation of not more than 10% when subjected to a load of 8 kN (1800 lb-f) and, if made of rope, be tested in accordance with ISO 2307;
(d) they shall have, at one end, a termination made in accordance with Clause 5.4.1 of CSA Z259.12 and have an integrated Class I connector or a Class II connector installed with a Class I connector;
(e) they shall have, at the other end, a manufactured termination that prevents the fall arrester from passing through that termination;
(f) they shall have a termination with a minimum breaking strength of 22 kN (5000 lb-f) when tested in accordance with ISO 2307 or CI 1500;
(g) if made of metal wire, they shall have formed eye terminations with a minimum strength of 22 kN (5000 lb-f) when tested in accordance with ASTM E8/E8M; and
(h) they shall be free of splices and knots, except at the terminations.
Notes:
(1) Lifelines should not be used in locations where their materials can be incompatible with the environment.
(2) Lifelines need to be fastened to an anchor point complying with regulatory requirements and suitably protected against abrasion, sharp edges, and other destructive conditions.
6 Test performance
6.1 Dynamic performance and strength
6.1.1 - Dynamic performance of synthetic rope fall arresters - When synthetic rope fall arresters are tested for dynamic performance in accordance with Clause 5.3.2, the maximum movement of the fall arrester along the lifeline shall be not more than 1 m (39 in) from the test weight attachment point. Breakage of any component or other damage that could reduce the ability of the device to function properly shall not be allowed.
6.1.2 - Dynamic performance of wire rope fall arresters - When wire rope fall arresters are tested for dynamic performance in accordance with Clause 5.3.2, the maximum movement of the fall arrester along the lifeline shall be not more than 150 mm (6 in) from the test weight attachment point. Breakage of any component or other damage that could reduce the ability of the device to function properly shall not be allowed.
6.3 Slope test - Fall arrester used on slopes shall be tested in accordance with Clauses 5.3.3.5 and 5.3.6 (see Figures 5A and 5B). The test shall be performed at the minimum angle from the horizontal plane in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. The maximum movement of the fall arrester along the lifeline shall be not more than 1 m (39 in) from the dorsal attachment point.

Fall arresters and vertical rigid rails
(CSA Z259.2.4-12)
1 Scope
1.1 - This Standard specifies design, testing, and marking requirements for manufactured fall arresters and fixed vertical rigid rails that are used on a vertical or slope plane. “Vertical plane” means an angle of not more than 15° from the vertical, which prevents the worker from leaning back.
1.2 - The equipment specified in this Standard is intended for use where there is a danger of falling from heights. In the event of fall, the fall arrester will lock on the fixed vertical rigid rail to arrest the fall.
4.3 Automatic fall arresters
4.3.1 -Automatic fall arresters shall be designed and marked in a way that ensures that they can be correctly installed on a compatible vertical rigid rail. Vertical rigid rails shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
4.4 Harness compatibility
Harness compatibility shall be specified by the manufacturer of the vertical rigid rail and automatic fall arrester. Harnesses used with vertical rigid rail systems shall meet the requirements of CSA Z259.10..
5.3.2 Dynamic performance test #1
The test shall be performed as follows (see Figure 4):
(a) install the vertical rigid rail in such a manner that
   (i) the load cell will be attached to the top of the vertical rigid rail; and
  (ii) the rail can travel in the vertical direction but is prevented from swinging;
(b) install the automatic fall arrester not more than 1.0 m (39 in) from the top of the vertical rigid rail;
(c) connect the flexible test mass to the integral connecting linkages;
(d) Raise the flexible test mass to a height above the fall arrester such that:
   (i) the horizontal distance is less than 100 mm from the connection point on the fall arrester;
  (ii) the total free fall distance of the flexible test mass is
      (1) not less than twice the length of the integral connector, when supplied; or
      (2) 1.2 m when no integral connector is present.
(e) allow the flexible test mass to fall and measure the maximum arresting force and stopping distance.
Note: This test is designed for a scenario in which the worker falls straight down.
5.3.3 Dynamic performance test #2 (falling back scenario)
The test shall be performed as follows (see Figure 5):
(a) move M1 in such a manner that L1 is horizontal until the automatic fall arrester is unlocked. If necessary, lift M1 until the fall arrester unlocks;
(b) connect the load cell to the lanyard of M2 and move the lanyard supporting M2 until a force of 400 N (90 lb-f) is reached, with α less than 15 ± 3°. L3 is the vertical distance from the test structure to the center of the pulley. L3 shall be 1.0 m (3.3 ft to 7 ft) ; and
(c) allow M1 to fall and, once M1 is at rest, measure the displacement, of the fall arrester.
Note: This test is designed for a scenario in which the worker falls back (away) from the ladder rather than falling straight down.

Descent Devices
(CAN/CSA – Z259.2.3-12)
1 Scope - This International Standard specifies requirements, test methods, marking and information to be supplied by the manufacturer for descending devices. It also specifies some basic requirements for the descent lines to be used with the descending devices.
This International Standard is applicable to automatic and manually operated descending devices intended for use in the workplace in access, egress, work positioning and rescue systems. Various types and classes of descending devices are defined according to function and performance. These descending devices can be used in situations other than the workplace if adequate training and/or supervision are provided.
This International Standard is not intended to apply to descending devices used in leisure activities such as recreational climbing and caving, although its requirements can be useful in specifying such equipment.
For the purpose of classification within this Canadian adoption of ISO 22159, descending device types 2, 4, 5, and 6 are considered outside the scope of this Standard (see Figure 2). All design, test, and other requirements pertaining to these descending device types do not apply.
NOTE Descending devices conforming to this International Standard can be designed for use by one or two persons simultaneously.
Anchorages to which personal fall arrest equipment is attached shall be capable of supporting at least 3.2 Classifications
3.2.1 Classification by type
Descending devices are classified by type, as described below (see Figure 1 for generic examples of the different types of descending device and Figure 2 for their characteristics):
a) type 1: automatically operated descending device with integrated descent line;
b) type 2: manually operated descending device with integrated descent line;
c) type 3: manually operated descending device with mechanically variable friction, hands-free locking and panic locking features;
d) type 4: manually operated descending device with mechanically variable friction and hands-free locking features;
e) type 5: manually operated descending device with mechanically variable friction and non-automatic locking;
f) type 6: manually operated descending device with non-mechanically variable friction and non-automatic locking.
NOTE: Descending devices can conform to the requirements of more than one type.
NOTE: For the purpose of classification within this Canadian adoption of ISO 22159, descending device types 2, 4, 5, and 6 are considered outside the scope of this Standard (see Figure 2). All design, test, and other requirements pertaining to these descending device types do not apply.
3.2.2 Classification by performance
Descending devices of types 1 and 2 are classified by performance, as follows (see 4.9):
a) class A for a descent energy, W, up to 7,5 × 106 J;
b) class B for a descent energy, W, up to 1,5 × 106 J;
c) class C for a descent energy, W, up to 0,5 × 106 J;
d) class D for one descent only; the descent energy, W, depends on the maximum descent height and the
maximum rated load.
NOTE In practice, descending devices are subjected to different loads, e.g. a descending device for descending 100 passengers from a cable car at a height of 100 m conforms to more stringent requirements than a descending device used by a crane driver to descend from a height of 20 m. The descent energy can be used to calculate the maximum combination of descent height and number of descents for a particular use.
4.5.2 Minimum rated load
The minimum rated load shall be specified by the manufacturer. For testing purposes, the minimum rated load shall have a tolerance of ( 2 ) 0 %. +
4.6 Holding load
4.6.1 Hands-free locking position: types 2, 3 and 4 descending devices When type 2 descending devices incorporating a hands-free locking element and types 3 and 4 descending devices are tested in accordance with 5.5.2 with a force of ( 0,1) 3 0 kN + or a force equivalent to 1,5 times the maximum rated load, whichever is the greater, to a tolerance of ( 0,1) 0 kN, + the descending device shall sustain the load for ( 0,5 ) 3 0 min + with a maximum of 300 mm slippage of the descent line through the descending device. After this test, the descending device shall still function properly, i.e. it shall be possible to operate the descending device in accordance with the information supplied by the manufacturer.
4.6.2 Panic locking position: types 2 and 3 descending devices When type 2 descending devices incorporating a panic-locking element and type 3 descending devices are tested in accordance with 5.5.2 with a force of ( 0 ) 450 −10 N applied to the panic locking element and with a force applied to the descending device of ( 0,1) 3 0 kN + or a force equivalent to 1,5 times the maximum rated load, whichever is the greater, to a tolerance of ( 0,1) 0 kN, + the descending device shall sustain the load for ( 0,5 ) 3 0 min + with a maximum of 300 mm slippage of the descent line through the descending device. After this test, the descending device shall still function properly, i.e. it shall be possible to operate the descending device in accordance with the information supplied by the manufacturer.
4.8 Dynamic performance
When tested in accordance with 5.6 with a mass equivalent to the maximum rated load, descending devices shall not release the mass and, with the exception of type 1 descending devices, shall not exceed an arrest distance of 2,0 m. No part of the descending device shall show any signs of permanent deformation that could affect its function and the descent line shall not show any signs of tearing or breaking. Minor glazing of the descent line may occur. For class D descending devices, the maximum impact force in each dynamic performance test shall be measured and recorded.
4.10 Descent velocity
4.10.1 When tested in accordance with 5.7.3 with a mass equivalent to the maximum rated load, type 1 descending devices shall not allow the test mass to descend at a rate exceeding 2 m/s.
4.10.2 For types 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 descending devices, when tested in accordance with 5.7.3 with a mass equivalent to the maximum rated load, it shall be possible to maintain a descent velocity of a maximum of 2 m/s for at least a period of 5 s.
4.10.3 When tested in accordance with 5.7.3 with a mass equivalent to the minimum rated load, it shall be possible to keep the descent velocity of types 1 and 2 descending devices classes A, B and C above 0,5 m/s. For types 1 and 2 descending devices, class D, and for types 3 to 6 descending devices, it shall be possible to maintain a descent velocity of more than 0,1 m/s.
NOTE It is recognized that during certain sections of the descent, or for particular specialized applications, speeds
higher than 2 m/s can be justified. However, it is advisable that the descending devices still be capable of being kept to a
maximum of 2 m/s..
Personal fall arrest systems shall be inspected prior to each use for mildew, wear, damage and other deterioration. Defective components shall be removed from service if their strength or function may be adversely affected.

Body belts and saddles for work positioning and travel restraint
(CSA Z259.1-05)
1.1 Scope - This Standard specifies requirements for the performance, design, testing, marking, and instructions of body belts and saddles. Body belts and saddles are used as part of work positioning and travel restraint systems.
1.2   This Standard covers equipment such as
(a) lineman’s body belts;
(b) body belts;
(c) miners’ belts; and
(d) arborists’ saddles.
1.4  Body belts and saddles are not intended for use as body support in the arrest of a worker’s fall, due to the possibility of injury or death resulting from
(a) impact on the body when the fall is arrested;
(b) fallout from a body belt; or
(c) effects of extended static suspension in a body belt.
When using a work positioning system, fall protection is provided by a fall arrest system that includes a full body harness that meets the requirements of CAN/CSA-Z259.10..2.6 Length of Lanyard - The lanyard length shall be as short as possible for the work situation involved, while allowing reasonable maneuverability and working convenience.
4.3.1 Body belt classifications
Body belts shall be classified as follows:
(a) Type 1 — body belt for linemen; and
(b) Type 2 — body belt for work positioning and travel restraint.
4.4.1 Saddle classifications
4.4.1.1 General
Saddles shall be classified as follows:
(a) Group P — work positioning;
(b) Group D — descent; and
(c) Group PD — work positioning and descent.
5.2 Body belt test requirements — Drop test
The test samples shall be of such length that they will, when secured to the last buckle hole or when having a 100 mm (4 in) minimum protrusion (with friction buckle style) or properly fastened (with other styles), fit snugly around the 300 mm (11.8 in) diameter (943 mm (37 in) circumference) mandrel on the test mass.
   The body belt shall be tested in accordance with Clause 6.
   The body belt test shall be considered successful if the drop of the test mass is arrested and the test torso remains suspended after the drop for a minimum of 10 min.
5.3 Saddle test requirements — Drop test
The saddle assembly shall be tested in accordance with Clause 6.
The saddle assembly test shall be considered successful if the drop of the test mass is arrested and the
test torso remains suspended after the drop for a minimum of 10 min.

Fall Arresting Devices, Personnel Lowering Devices, and Life Lines
(CSA Z259.2.2-98)
1.1 Scope - This Standard specifies the requirements for all self-retracting devices (SRDs) used as connecting components in personal fall-arrest systems. SRDs are further classified in this Standard according to method of use and effective length.
3. Classification
3.1 Classification by Type
Self-retracting devices (SRDs) shall be classified by type as follows:
(a) Type 1 (SRL)
A Type 1 device shall be classified as a self-retracting lanyard (SRL). An SRL shall have a working length of between 1.5 and 3.0 m.
(b) Type 2 (SRL)
A Type 2 device shall be classified as a self-retracting lanyard (SRL). A Type 2 SRL shall generally have a working length of more than 3.0 m.
(c) Type 3 (RSRL)
A Type 3 device shall be classified as a self-retracting lanyard with retrieval function (RSRL). An RSRL shall have a working length of more than 3.0 m and be fitted with a retrieval device.
4. Design Requirements
4.1 General
4.1.6
Type 2 (SRL) and Type 3 (RSRL) devices shall be designed to automatically return to the fall-arrest function when an arrested load is removed from the unit.
4.1.7
Type 2 (SRL) and Type 3 (RSRL) devices shall be designed to have a visual load indicator that will activate and give a visual warning to the user in the event of arresting a fall (or after being subjected to an equal force).
4.1.8
Type 3 (RSRL) devices shall be designed to convert to recovery (retrieval) function while the arrested fall is held. This retrieval function shall be capable of two-way operations (raising and lowering) and have a minimum mechanical advantage of 3:1. The Type 3 (RSRL) recovery (retrieval) function shall be designed so that when this function is engaged it is capable of holding the weight of the worker steady if retrieval operation is stopped inadvertently. All Type 3 (RSRL) devices shall have a steadying handle or some means of stabilizing the device to aid in the retrieval (recovery) function.
5.2 Type 1 (SRL) Tests
5.2.1 Dynamic Performance
When tested in accordance with Clause 6.2.3.1, the Type 1 SRL shall successfully arrest the fall. The arrest distance shall not exceed 1.0 m.
5.3 Type 2 (SRL) and Type 3 (RSRL) Tests
5.3.2 Dynamic Performance
When tested in accordance with Clause 6.2.3.2, the Type 2 SRL/Type 3 RSRL shall remain locked until released. When released, the Type 2 SRL/Type 3 RSRL shall exhibit normal operation. The arrest distance measured when the test weight comes to rest shall not exceed 1 .4 m. The maximum arrest force (MAF) measured by the load cell shall not exceed 8 kN.
5.3.5 Ultimate Static Strength
When tested in accordance with Clause 6.5.2.1, the Type 2 SRL/Type 3 RSRL shall withstand a tensile load of 1 3.3 kN applied directly to the point of connection to the device's drum.
7.1.6 Type 2 and 3 Devices
Type 2 and 3 devices shall bear a warning indicating the following:
WARNING: This device shall be removed from service when the visual load applicator is deployed.
All Type 2 and 3 devices shall be returned to the manufacturer or manufacturer-approved service agent no more than 2 years after the date of the manufacture for inspection and maintenance, and annually thereafter. The manufacturer shall record the findings of this service and label the product with the next annual service date.

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